Hvilke konsekvenser kan mer nettbasert læring ha for elevene i skoleverket? Hvilke tjenester kommer i framtida?
Skolene bruker nå oftere nettbasert læring, noe som forandrer skolehverdagen for elever og lærere.
- nye samarbeidsformer utløses
- læring organiseres annerledes
- elevenes digitale ferdigheter endres
Om rapporten NMC Horizon Report > 2012 K-12 Edition
«Rapporten «Horizon Report K-12 Edition» undersøker hvilken virkning ny teknologi kan ha på undervisning og læring i grunnskolen og videregående opplæring. Betydningen av kunnskap om digitale medier blir stadig større.»
Etter hvert som skolene ser at elevenes læring øker ved bruk av nettbrett, mobil osv. som de kan ta med seg hjemmefra, blir dette mer og mer vanlig. Riktignok er det vanskelig å dokumentere at læring blir bedre når man bruker digitale hjelpemidler enn når man ikke bruker denne teknologien. Det er mange faktorer som spiller inn, og en nøytral test-situasjon for forskning – der alle feilkilder er ryddet bort – ville nok være utopisk. Dette kommenteres også på Eva 2.0
Likevel er det interessant å observere hvor mye motivasjon de kan mobilisere og hvor god læring enkelte elever opplever når de er inne i spill som Creed 2 eller World of Warcraft. Ingen har nevneverdige problemer med å huske rekkefølger, karakteregenskaper, triks og hjelpemidler i denne sammenhengen. Sannsynligvis husker de kanskje til og med hverandres IP-adresser og nicknames? (Jeg har aldri sett på spillet, langt mindre prøvd det.) De samme elevene kan likevel ha problemer med gangetabellen eller huske en enkel kjemisk formel i vanlige skoleoppgaver. Spørsmålet tvinger seg fram: Finnes det egenskaper i spillene som vi kan ta med oss inn i klasserommet og gjøre fagene mer spennende og dermed nå alle elevene?
I rapporten kan vi blant annet lese om seks teknologier som kan brukes i utdanning, hvorav ett av dem er spill (Game-based learning).
Innen 1 år:
Innen 3 år:
Innen 5 år:
Her forklares hva de ulike teknologiene står for. All teksten nedenfor er klippet fra rapporten. Bruk lenkene til Wiki for å se norske forklaringer. Du kan også ta en titt på prosjektets Wiki på denne adressen.
Mobile Devices and Apps
«Mobile devices have become one of the primary ways that youth interact with and learn from each other. Edison Research reports that in the U.S. alone, 61% of Americans age 12 and up own a mobile device, and 44% specifically own a smartphone. In affluent areas, those percentages are even higher; it is extremely common now for children, at younger and younger ages, to own and comfortably use smartphones. Common Sense Media reports that 52% of children even under eight-years-old have access to mobile media, and of this group, 11% spend an average of 43 minutes per day specifically with a mobile phone.»
Tablet computing presents new opportunities to enhance learning experiences in ways simply not possible with mobile phones, laptops, or desktop computers, and is especially suited for one-to-one earning in the K-12 environment. High-resolution creens allow users of tablets, such as the iPad and Galaxy, to easily share content, images, and video. They are engaging and viewed as less disruptive than other hand-held devices (no phone ringing and no ncoming text messages). Because tablets are able o tap into all the advantages that mobile apps bring o smaller devices but in a larger format, schools are eeing them not just as affordable solutions for one- o-one learning, but also as feature-rich tools for all orts of assignments as well, often replacing far more expensive and cumbersome devices and equipment.
Game-based learning has gained more traction in recent years as research continues to demonstrate its effectiveness for learning. Games for education span the range from single-player or small-group card and board games all the way to massively multiplayer online games and alternate reality games. Those at the single-player or small-group end of the spectrum are easy to integrate into the curriculum, and have long been an option in many schools; but the greatest potential of games for learning lies in their ability to foster collaboration and engage students deeply in the process of learning. Currently, the integration of games into K-12 is largely driven by individual educators who are motivated to experiment with gaming at school. There is a small but growing set of organizations that partner with schools to help them design or implement games, but until a way is found to marshal resources more effectively in support of game-based learning, it will remain on the mid-term horizon
Personal Learning Environments (PLE)
Personal learning environments (PLEs), as outlined in this year’s report, refer to the personal collections of tools and resources a person assembles to support their own learning — both formal and informal. The conceptual basis for PLEs has shifted significantly in the last year, as smartphones, tablets, and apps have begun to emerge as a compelling alternative to browser-based PLEs and e-portfolios. There has been a corresponding move away from centralized server-based solutions to distributed and portable ones. Despite the use of the word ‘environment’ in the name, the notion of a physical or virtual space is somewhat irrelevant to a PLE. The goal is for students to have more control over how they learn in school, just as they do at home, and for teachers to set expectations that their students will be actively engaged in designing and supporting their own learning strategies. Personal learning environments rely on enabling technologies, especially cloud computing and mobile devices, that make the learning environment portable, networked, and personally relevant
Augmented Reality (AR)
Augmented reality (AR) refers to the layering of information over a view or representation of the normal world, offering users the ability to access place-based information in ways that are compellingly intuitive. Augmented reality brings significant potential to supplement information delivered via computers, mobile devices, video, and even the printed book. Adding to the experience, most of the current tools do this in ways that the user can control and manipulate in real-time. While augmented reality is much simpler to create and use now than ever before, it is still several years away from widespread adoption in schools, although for informal education, it is already commonplace. History and science museums use augmented reality in creative ways to show visitors the science behind a phenomena as it happens, or what a building looked like centuries ago as they view it through the camera on their smartphones or tablets. Although AR is a well-understood technology, and the enabling technologies are readily available, the lack of school-based examples justifies its placement on the far-term horizon.
Natural user Interfaces (NUI)
Natural user interfaces allow computers to respond to gestures, motions of the body, facial expressions, voice, sound, and other environmental cues, and are replacing the keyboard and mouse as the standard for computer/human interaction. The various technologies that enable natural user interfaces are making interactions with computational devices far more intuitive, and often so simple that no instructions are even needed to use them. The device teaches you as you interact with it. From the touchscreens on smartphones and tablets, to the gesture and voice interactions built into the latest gaming systems (Xbox Kinect and Nintendo Wii, for example), to capable virtual assistants like Siri on the iPhone 4S, natural user interfaces enable users to learn by doing and seamlessly convert thought to action. Large multi-touch displays support collaborative work, allowing multiple users to interact with content simultaneously. Natural user interfaces have proven especially beneficial for autistic, blind, deaf, and other special needs students; a great deal of progress has been made by exploring applications in these areas.
Augmented Reality er snart virkelighet i dagliglivet
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